With knowledge privateness points continually within the information, what do companies must find out about dealing with private info after they’re contemplating chapter, particularly if some private info – like buyer data – could also be a invaluable asset?

That is the second a part of a 3-part collection of posts addressing the Chapter Code’s provisions associated to personally identifiable info (“PII”), and the way transfers of PII in chapter can play out in the true world.  [Click here to read Part I]

Half II: Observe Suggestions


Points associated to the switch of PII and different private info can complicate M&A transactions within the chapter context. Companies considering a restructuring can keep away from minefields – in addition to save time and sources – by taking steps early to grasp their knowledge belongings and privateness insurance policies and to map out methods upfront.The main target of this submit is to supply sensible recommendation for navigating the privacy-related hurdles a enterprise could face in reference to promoting PII and different private info as an asset in chapter.

Step 1: Find & Decide Private Data for Sale

In an ideal world, a enterprise dealing with chapter is absolutely knowledgeable concerning its knowledge – what knowledge it has, the place the information are saved, and the restrictions the enterprise could also be topic to with regard to its use and disclosure of knowledge. In actuality, this isn’t all the time (and even usually) the case. However companies considering a chapter continuing want to consider the PII and different private info of their possession or management – and, notably, which classes could also be invaluable belongings in chapter. As an preliminary matter, it’s vital {that a} enterprise perceive:

  1. Who owns the information. Does the enterprise itself personal the entire PII and different private info that could be offered, or is there one other entity or entities which will have an possession curiosity? For instance, in RadioShack, AT&T and Verizon disputed possession of buyer knowledge acquired by RadioShack by means of the sale of their respective services and products. Finally, the events (together with the customer) entered a stipulation requiring detailed protocols, together with technical steps, to make sure that contested AT&T and Verizon knowledge wouldn’t be transferred or offered to Common Wi-fi.1
  2. The place the information are housed. For instance, does the enterprise centralize or segregate its knowledge? Is private info saved on the enterprise’s servers, within the cloud, with third-party distributors, or (probably) some mixture of those? What technically could be required for the information to be transferred to a purchaser?
  3. How the information are organized. Does the enterprise have the capability to determine and extract explicit classes of knowledge whereas leaving different classes of knowledge in place and intact? If an eventual court docket order have been to direct the enterprise to switch sure knowledge classes however destroy others, would that be technically potential for the enterprise?

The solutions to those questions will assist companies decide which classes of private info could also be offered and which must be excluded from an public sale. As soon as a enterprise has a deal with on the scope of PII and different private info that could be in play, it will probably concentrate on how to make sure that any knowledge switch is made legally.

Step 2: Compliance with Non-Chapter Legal guidelines

With the classes of knowledge belongings eligible on the market in thoughts, a enterprise ought to assess relevant legal guidelines and what restrictions or circumstances could also be imposed on the switch. Along with PII as outlined by the Chapter Code, companies can have different classes of private info which might be ruled by non-bankruptcy privateness legal guidelines, and a spread of legal guidelines could apply to the identical datasets. It’s due to this fact essential {that a} enterprise think about the complete scope of relevant legal guidelines and laws, bearing in mind:

  • U.S. legal guidelines, which differ on the federal and state degree in addition to by enterprise sector (e.g., federal healthcare and monetary privateness legal guidelines and the California Client Privateness Act);
  • International legal guidelines, which can apply even when a enterprise doesn’t bodily function in a specific nation if that enterprise collects knowledge from residents of that nation (similar to below the EU Common Information Safety Regulation (GDPR)); and
  • Self-regulatory frameworks and requirements, just like the Cost Card Trade Information Safety Commonplace (PCI-DSS) and the EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privateness Defend Frameworks.

The place there could also be circumstances or restrictions on the switch or sale of private info, think about whether or not the enterprise or an eventual purchaser, relying on which social gathering is healthier positioned, would have the ability to fulfill these circumstances or restrictions. As examples:

  • A enterprise considering the switch of Protected Well being Data (PHI)2 should adjust to HIPAA, which permits for the switch of PHI with specific affected person authorization or, within the absence of affected person authorization, solely the place the switch is from one HIPAA-covered entity (i.e., healthcare supplier, well being plan or healthcare clearinghouse) to a different or to an entity that may turn into a coated entity following the transaction.3 Relying on the quantity of PHI at subject and the issue of acquiring consent from all impacted sufferers, this restriction could considerably scale back the variety of viable consumers.
  • The EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privateness Defend Frameworks are accepted mechanisms for the cross-border switch of private info from the European Financial Space and/or Switzerland to the U.S. that require firms to self-certify their compliance to a set of legally binding privateness and knowledge safety requirements. These Frameworks don’t expressly ponder the switch of coated knowledge within the context of a chapter. A Privateness Defend-certified enterprise dealing with restructuring might want to decide whether or not, how, and to whom it might switch the non-public info of European or Swiss people.

The interaction between numerous authorized necessities could make it difficult to find out whether or not and what private info might be transferred pursuant to a sale in chapter. For that reason, companies must be upfront and sincere all through the chapter sale course of about their knowledge and their privateness practices, and will search the help of counsel (in addition to the trustee and the court docket) the place it’s unclear whether or not knowledge might be legally transferred.

Step 3: Privateness Insurance policies

As soon as a enterprise has vetted a subset of PII and/or private info that the enterprise believes could also be legally transferred, it should decide whether or not its client privateness insurance policies authorize the switch of that knowledge.

  • The In-Impact Privateness Coverage.

As mentioned in Half I, the Chapter Code requires appointment of an ombudsman the place a enterprise has a privateness coverage that guarantees shoppers it is not going to switch their PII and that coverage is in impact on the date the case commences. If the enterprise’s present public-facing coverage explicitly guarantees to not switch PII (similar to in RadioShack), then by the plain phrases of the Code, both an ombudsman should be appointed to find out whether or not and the way such info can, regardless of the coverage, be transferred or the enterprise might want to exclude PII from the asset sale. Extra difficult are situations by which a privateness coverage is silent on the difficulty of switch (or a enterprise has not disclosed any privateness coverage); these eventualities are mentioned within the subsequent part.

One other thorny subject is the place the enterprise’s present privateness coverage contemplates the switch of PII pursuant to chapter M&A however older insurance policies didn’t. There may be some room for interpretation concerning whether or not such historic insurance policies are “in impact” and thus related for functions of the Code. However, absent the enterprise having taken particular measures to make sure that outdated insurance policies have been adequately retired (e.g., purging knowledge from shoppers who didn’t explicitly decide into superseding privateness insurance policies), the prudent and extra supportable method is to deal with the enterprise’s historic insurance policies as efficient. That is in keeping with normal ideas of privateness legislation—which dictate that the coverage governing a client’s info is the coverage that was disclosed to her when her private info was collected—and the method incessantly taken by ombudsmen.4 

Take, for instance, a enterprise whose present privateness coverage and all insurance policies in impact from the yr 2014 ahead contained a clause notifying customers that their private info could be disclosed or transferred within the occasion of a chapter, however pre-2014 insurance policies said that the enterprise would by no means promote client knowledge below any circumstance. Offered the enterprise has some option to decide what PII is topic to which privateness coverage (and, sadly, not all companies do), that enterprise ought to assess the worth of the pre-2014 knowledge to a possible purchaser.  If the knowledge is of restricted worth to the transaction, the enterprise ought to think about excluding it from the sale and purging it previous to the closing of the transaction. However, if the knowledge is effective, the enterprise ought to weigh that worth in opposition to the expense and potential restrictions or circumstances on switch.

  • The Absent or Silent Privateness Coverage.

The place a enterprise has no posted privateness coverage, by the plain language of the Code, an ombudsman isn’t required. However that doesn’t imply the sale of PII or private info shall be mechanically permissible, or {that a} proposed transaction is not going to face problem. A chapter court docket could not allow an information switch the place such switch violates relevant non-bankruptcy legislation; and failure to submit a privateness coverage is prone to run afoul of sure legal guidelines. For instance, the FTC Act prohibits unfair or misleading acts or practices affecting commerce, which can embrace gathering private info with out the information or full understanding of the people that present it, and several other federal and state legal guidelines require that customers be notified of the gathering and use of their private info previous to assortment.5

In follow, whether or not the court docket, trustee or others determine to problem a proposed switch of PII or private info within the absence of a privateness coverage is prone to rely on the quantity and nature of the information, together with its degree of sensitivity. The bigger the quantity of knowledge and the higher the sensitivity of such knowledge, the extra probably the information are to attract consideration. It’s typically greatest to not take possibilities—the place a enterprise believes it might not be in materials compliance with relevant legal guidelines in reference to the information it hopes to promote, it might make sense to seek the advice of with the trustee about methods to mitigate privacy-related issues. One frequent and efficient—however probably burdensome—repair is to require that both the enterprise or the successful bidder present people with discover and the power to opt-out of the switch of their private info.

Privateness insurance policies which might be silent on knowledge sale and switch current a distinct subject. The place a enterprise has a coverage that doesn’t deal with whether or not private info could also be offered or in any other case transferred pursuant to a sale in chapter, the enterprise ought to rigorously think about whether or not the coverage, learn as a complete, implicitly prohibits such a switch. The important thing consideration here’s what an inexpensive client would perceive in regards to the dealing with of their knowledge by the debtor, which must be knowledgeable by an evaluation as as to whether the coverage or different statements made to shoppers (in writing, verbally or in any other case) could give an impression that non-public info is not going to be transferred.

In Sharper Picture, Sharper Picture sought to promote its buyer mailing lists however resisted appointment of an ombudsman, arguing that the proposed sale was not inconsistent with its privateness coverage, which had no provisions addressing the sale or switch of private info. The court docket disagreed and appointed an ombudsman, who famous in her report that the switch of buyer mailing lists couldn’t be in keeping with Sharper Picture’s privateness insurance policies as these insurance policies “didn’t anticipate or deal with the kind of sale contemplated by the [transaction].”6 The ombudsman in the end ordered Sharper Picture to destroy sure PII and positioned restrictions on the sale of the remaining PII, together with that it’s offered solely to a “certified purchaser” working in the identical line of enterprise as Sharper Picture and certain by the Sharper Picture privateness coverage.7

In distinction, some companies with a silent coverage err on the facet of warning and proactively request an ombudsman even the place they imagine it might not be required. As an example, the debtor in Emivest Aerospace Corp. requested appointment of an ombudsman as a result of its privateness coverage “[did] not explicitly present that [personal] info could also be transferred to a purchaser of considerably the entire belongings of the Debtor.”8 Significantly the place a delayed sale may materially influence a debtor financially or trigger a possible purchaser to lose curiosity in or again out of a deal, Emivest’s method is probably going the extra prudent course in most situations.


The large takeaway for companies approaching a restructuring which will contain the switch of PII or different private info is to maintain privateness issues on the forefront early and all through the restructuring course of. Understanding what private info you will have and what your public-facing notices say (or don’t say) about that info shall be vital to creating a plan of motion as you progress by means of the method.